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Interactions of Turing and Hopf bifurcations in an additional food provided diffusive predator-prey model
Xun Cao,Weihua Jiang
Keywords:Diffusive predator-prey system, Turing instability, Turing-Hopf bifurcation, spatiotemporal patterns, additional food supply
Abstract:
      Complex spatiotemporal dynamics of a diffusive predator-prey system involving additional food supply to predator and intra-specific competition among predator, are investigated. We establish critical conditions of the occurrence of Turing instability, which are necessary and sufficient. Furthermore, we also establish conditions of the occurrence of codimension-2 Turing-Hopf bifurcation and Turing-Turing bifurcation, by exploring interactions of Turing bifurcations and Hopf bifurcation. For Turing-Hopf bifurcation, by analyzing normal form truncated to order 3 which are derived by applying normal form method, it is shown that under proper conditions, diffusive predator-prey system generates interesting spatial, temporal and spatiotemporal patterns, including a pair of spatially inhomogeneous steady states, a spatially homogeneous periodic solution and a pair of spatially inhomogeneous periodic solutions. And numerical simulations are also shown to support theory analysis. Moreover, it is found that proper intra-specific competition among predator helps generate complex spatiotemporal dynamics. And, proper additional food supply to predator helps control the population fluctuations of predator and prey, while large quantity and high quality of additional food supply will lead to the extinction of prey and make predator change the source of food, which finally destroy the ecosystem. These investigations might help understand complex spatiotemporal dynamics of predator-prey system involving additional food supply to predator and intra-specific competition among predator, and help conserve species in an ecosystem via supplying suitable additional food.